1.0 MicroMODEL DATA ENTRY

1.1 Introduction

The Data Entry Sub-Menu appears below:

  1. Return to Main Menu
  2. Command Shell
  3. Enter Project Information (required)
  4. Convert Multiple Text Files to Standard Drill Hole Input
  5. Read In Existing Drill Hole Database
  6. Print Drill Hole Database
  7. Database Editing (Menu)
  8. Plot Drill Hole Surface Locations
  9. Plot Drill Hole Bench Locations
  10. Plot Drill Hole Sections (value or downhole histograms)
  11. Sample Frequency Analysis and Basic Statistics
  12. Sample Cumulative Frequency Analysis
  13. Sample Correlation Analysis
  14. Sample Manipulation
  15. Clean-Up Directory

This module enables the user to enter the project information and capture sampled drill hole data into a MicroMODEL database. Once the drill hole data is entered, MicroMODEL has a suite of display and statistical programs that can be used to verify and analyze the sample drill hole database.

1.2 Command Shell

This menu choice enables the user to invoke commands and run external programs without exiting MicroMODEL. This program is simply a command shell. The user enters as many commands as desired. Type "EXIT" at the command prompt to return to MicroMODEL.

1.3 Enter Project Information (required)

This menu choice runs the program that establishes the Project Information File, which is accessed by all programs within MicroMODEL. The information in this file can be changed or updated by the user at any time during the data entry module involving drill hole capture, drill hole plotting, and statistics. The Project Information File should not be changed once any modeling (Surface Modeling, Rock Modeling, Compositing, Grade Modeling, and Pit Evaluation Modules) takes place. If, after having created any models, the user finds that it is necessary to move the base point of the model, or to increase the number of rows, columns, or levels, he must then go back and re-create any modeling runs that have been made. Moving the base point, or changing the size of the model ALWAYS invalidates any models that were created using the old base point, or the old model size. Models created with a different set of row/column/level limits should be deleted prior to any new modeling runs!

The PROJECT TITLE is displayed on all MicroMODEL printed output. This title should describe the general project information (property name, company name, location, account number, year, etc.). The project title is limited to a maximum of 64 characters. All programs that display this project title also allow the user to enter a runtime title, which more explicitly describes that particular run. The project title may be changed at any time, if necessary.

The NORTHING, EASTING, ELEVATION and ROTATION ANGLE of the "lower left corner" define the base point and orientation of the block model (local grid) relative to the global coordinate system (global grid). The optional Rotation Angle allows the model to be oriented in any plan view position relative to North. Note that in most instances, the rotation angle will be zero. Reasons you may want to rotate the model may include that your drillholes were drilled in a pattern that is not E-W or N-S, or if your orebody is much longer in one axis than the other and the axis at which it is oriented is not E-W or N-S.

See Figure 1.1 below for more information on the spatial orientation of the model.

                        FIGURE 1.1
      ORIGIN LOCATION = North:250 East:350 Elevation:9500
      Rotation Angle:320 Degrees (Clockwise from North left edge)

The NUMBER of ROWS, COLUMNS, LEVELS, and the DIMENSIONS of the ROWS, COLUMNS, and LEVELS define the extent of the modeled area: (See Figure 1.2 for more information.)

                   FIGURE 1.2

    Width of Model=	(Number of Rows) x (Row Dimension)
    4 Rows x 30M = 120M


    Length of Model= (Number of Columns) x (Column Dimension)
    3 Columns x 50M = 150M


    Height of Model= (Number of Levels) x (Level Dimension)
    5 Levels x 20M = 100M

The type of UNITS allows the user to select the English or Metric system of measurement for all modeling, reporting, and scaling of maps. Choices are "FEET" for English units of measure, and "METERS" for metric units of measure.

If you are modeling a layered (seam) deposit, then check the box labeled "Check to Select Seam Modeling Options." Checking this box changes MicroMODEL from a 3-D block modeling system into a 2-D seam modeling system. Note that the number of benches (levels) must still be defined for seam modeling, along with the bench height. These parameters define the vertical extent of the seam deposit. Also, the seam reserve reporting programs still report reserves by bench, as well as by seam.

The next set of input parameters for the project information files are the NUMBER OF LABELS for sample data, composite data, and grade models. A label is defined as a particular assayed element, or other parameter that can be modeled, and is associated in some way with the raw data.

A SAMPLE DATA LABEL is a label that is associated with the sampled or unsampled drill hole intercepts. A one-to-one correspondence must exist between a sampled from-to interval in a drill hole, and each and every label defined for the sample database. (Of course, any of the values making up the labels may be flagged as undefined or unsampled). A field is available for the entry of additional description for each sample label. The user is encouraged to use this feature, but entry of information is optional.

A COMPOSITE DATA LABEL is a label that is associated with composited drill hole intercepts. Again, a one-to-one correspondence must exist between a composited from-to interval in a drill hole, and each and every label defined for the composite drill hole database. A field is available for the entry of additional description for each composite label. The user is encouraged to use this feature, but entry of information is optional.

A GRADE MODEL LABEL is different than the data labels described above. The grade model labels represent a particular data label or combination of data labels that are modeled by any of the available modeling techniques. These types of data may include manipulations of one or more sample or composite data labels, manufactured grade models created by manipulation of previously built grade models, or direct modeling of one of the sample or composite data labels. A field is available for the entry of additional description for each grade model label. The user is encouraged to use this feature, but entry of information is optional.

There does not have to be a one-to-one correspondence between the three types of labels. However, if data compositing is done using the MicroMODEL drill hole compositing program, the sample data labels and the composite data labels MUST be the same. Once the data is composited, the user may delete or add labels to the composite database as he wishes.

An example of a potential set up for sample, composite and grade labels in a simple gold project is shown below:

Given

Sample data taken from the drill hole and assay sheets:

Composited data required for modeling:

Grade models required for mine planning:

Label Setup before Drill Hole Compositing

      Sample Data    Composite Data     Grade Model
      Labels         Labels             Labels

      1 AuFire       1 AuFire           1 Gold
      2 Au_AA	     2 Au_AA            2 Silver
      3 AgFire       3 AgFire           3 AuEqv
      4 Ag_AA

Label Setup after Drill Hole Compositing/Cleanup

      Sample Data    Composite Data     Grade Model
      Labels         Labels             Labels

      1 AuFire       1 AuFire           1 Gold
      2 Au_AA	     2 Au_AA            2 Silver
      3 AgFire                          3 AuEqv
      4 Ag_AA

The NUMBER OF SAMPLE LABELS is the number of sample assay or data types to be input with the drill holes. Both the Interactive Drill Hole Data Capture and the Read In An Existing Drill Hole Database programs expect data for each sample data label entered. The label value can be flagged as unsampled by entering -999.99 in text files to be read, if no data exists for a given drill hole interval. Be sure to enter the value exactly as "-999.99."

The SAMPLE LABEL NAME is a name which describes the information contained in the corresponding sample data label number. The name can contain any characters from the keyboard with a maximum length of 6 characters. The system uses these label names on most forms of output along with the associated label number. Generally, when MicroMODEL asks for a label specifier, the user normally selects the label name with a command button.

The NUMBER OF COMPOSITE LABELS is the number of composite assay or data types to be input or calculated. Both the Interactive Composite Drill Hole Data Capture and the Read In An Existing Composited Drill Hole Database programs expect data for each composite data label entered. The label value should be flagged as unsampled (-999.99 in text files to be read) if no data exists for a given drill hole interval. Please note that the number of composite data labels must equal the number of sample data labels if the MicroMODEL drill hole compositing program is used. However, if the drill hole data has been composited outside of the system, the number of composite data labels must correspond only to the number of labels to be read in via the Read In An Existing Composited Drill Hole Database option in the Bench Compositing Sub-Menu.

The COMPOSITE LABEL NAME is a name which describes the information contained in the corresponding composite data label number. The name can contain any characters from the keyboard with a maximum length of 6 characters. The system uses these label names on most forms of output along with the associated label number.

The NUMBER OF GRADE LABELS is the number of individual types of grade models expected during the project. This number can be increased at any time during the project, allowing additional grade model labels to be added. However, if this number is decreased, any grade models built on the label numbers that have been removed are no longer accessible through the system.

The GRADE LABEL NAME is a name which describes the model that was built using the associated grade label number. The name can contain any characters from the keyboard with a maximum length of 6 characters. The system uses these label names on most forms of output along with the associated label number.

1.4 Convert Multiple Text Files to Standard Drill Hole Input

This program replaces the interactive drillhole input program from previous versions of MicroMODEL. It allows the user to convert a set of separate ASCII text files containing drillhole collar, survey, assay, and optional geology information into a single, standard MicroMODEL input file that can be read with the next program choice (1.5).

These separate text files can easily be created with any spreadsheet program, or with a database program such as MicroSoft Access. It is suggested that the user always export data using tab delimited file format, although comma delimited, tab delimited, space delimited, and fixed width formats are all handled by this program.

This is a multiple answer set program, so the user is required to enter the ANSWER SET NAME.

The name of the COLLAR FILE is entered. The user computer directory can be directly accessed, if desired, to select this file. The collar file must contain, at a minimum, the Drill Hole Name, Collar Easting, Collar Northing, and Collar Elevation. This file can also contain the Collar Azimuth and Collar Dip. If an Azimuth and Dip are not entered, then the user must supply this information in the separate Survey File. Under this scenario, the Survey File MUST contain an entry at depth equals zero feet/meters for every hole.

The start of a typical collar file is shown below:

Dh Name Northing Easting Elevation Azimuth Dip
DH15    5143     4667    3400        0     90
DH16    4931     4566    3480        0     90
DH17    4941     4807    3489      200     60
DH18    4944     4817    3489      120     60
DH19    5034     4751    3467      185     58

Additional information, such as total depth of the hole, can appear in the COLLAR FILE. These fields should be flagged as [IGNORE] when selecting the field descriptors.

An optional DOWNHOLE SURVEY FILE name can be entered. If a survey file is used, the check box labeled "Check to Use Downhole Survey File" must be checked. This file must be used if any downhole surveys have been made on the drillhole data, or if the COLLAR FILE does not contain collar azimuths or dips. This file should contain, at a minimum, the DRILL Hole Name, Survey Depth, Survey Azimuth, and Survey Dip. Additional fields can appear in this file, and should be flagged as [IGNORE].

The start of a typical survey file is shown below:

Drillhole Depth Azimuth Dip
DH17      200   201     60
DH18      150   121     60
DH18      300   119     60
DH19      200   186     58

The name of the ASSAY INTERVAL INFORMATION FILE is entered. This file must contain, at a minimum, the Drill Hole Name, Interval From, Interval To, and an Assay Value. The file can also contain a geology code (rock/seam code), and additional assay values. Other fields can appear in this file, and should be flagged as [IGNORE].

The start of a typical assay interval file is shown below. Note that this file contains alphanumeric (text) values for rock codes that would require the use of a data dictionary list as explained next:

Dhname From To Rock Au Opt
DH15    0    5 Ovb  0.022
DH15    5   10 Ovb  0.062
DH15   10   15 Qmp  0.137
DH15   15   20 Qmp  0.079
DH15   20   25 Qmp  0.026
DH15   25   30 Qmp  0.005
DH15   30   35 Qmp  0.003

The NAME OF THE OUTPUT FILE must be entered. It is suggested that this file be named with the extension MMI. For example, DHDATA.MMI would be a typical name entered here.

The NUMBER OF DATA DICTIONARY LISTS must be specified. If none of the input data columns (other than the drill hole name) contains strictly text or a mix of text and numeric values, then this value can be set to zero. Otherwise, the user must supply one or more lists that will be used to convert text entries into numeric equivalents. Up to five separate lists can be used, but if desired, the user can supply one single list to cover multiple fields. For the example assay interval file shown above, the data dictionary might have "Ovb" set to code 99, and "Qmp" set to 1.

MicroMODEL uses a convention in which DOWNWARD DIP VALUES are entered as positive values. If the input data uses the opposite convention (i.e., downward dips are negative), then the user should check the box in the lower right corner of the first input screen.

If the rock or seam code information has been entered in a separate text file, then the user must check a box labeled "Check Here if Your Rock Data is in a separate interval file." The name of the input file is entered in the appropriate field. Since this option actually creates a separate data file that is used with program ADDROK, the name of the Output File must also be entered.

For each input file that has been specified, the user must choose the DELIMITING METHOD. Delimiting method is chosen by pressing the button labelled "Set Delimiter Style" to the right of the file name field. When this button is pressed, a new window is shown that displays the file "as is", along with the radio buttons for selecting the delimiter style. The file can be delimited, be fixed width with automatic column width selection, or fixed width with manual column width entry. The user must also specify the line number in the file in which actual data values begin. For example, if the first two lines of a file are header information, then data begins on line "3".

After choosing the delimiting method, the user proceeds to the next screen by pressing the "Next>" button. Here, the file is displayed showing the columns separated by vertical bars "|". If the file is not getting parsed correctly, then return to the previous screen and modify the delimiter choices.

For each input file, the user must specify the TOTAL NUMBER OF DATA FIELDS that are in each input file, and whether or not there may be extra fields in the file. Unless the user knows that there are extra fields in the file (a typical example would be comment fields), the user should select "There are no Extra Fields in the File."

For each file, the user must select which data item is contained in each data column. Also, the Column Data Type must be specified. Data Type can be TEXT, NUMERIC, or MIXED. The Drill Hole Name should always be set as TEXT. For any columns other than the Drill Hole Name that are flagged as either TEXT or MIXED, the user must specify the Dictionary Set that will be used to translate text entries in that column to numeric values that MicroMODEL can use.

Finally, the user must enter the Data Dictionary information for each Dictionary Set that has been specified. For each set, one or more Cross Reference entries are made containing the ORIGINAL TEXT value and the NUMERIC EQUIVALENT. There is an AUTOMATIC SCAN function that the user can access which will automatically scan the input files for all unique text entries for data columns that use that data dictionary. If the user is unsure of all the possible text entries, then this feature should be used.

1.5 Read in an Existing Drill Hole Database

This program allows the user to read an existing ASCII drill hole database into MicroMODEL as a new drill hole database or add drill holes to a previously entered MicroMODEL database. The program performs some checks on the integrity of the incoming drill hole data and has an option to warn the user of any bounds errors detected as it is read into MicroMODEL. The input file can be in one of three formats. Standard MicroMODEL format is the most common, and is the format created by "Convert Multiple Text Files to Standard Drill Hole Input." Non-Standard MicroMODEL input is similar to standard MicroMODEL format, but the rock/seam code and value labels can be entered in a user-specified order. Finally, the user may specify Blasthole (Geochem) input. Blasthole or Geochem data assumes a single sample interval for each drillhole.

1.5.1 Read Standard MicroMODEL Input

The ASCII input drill hole data file can be located in the MicroMODEL database directory, or a path name may be prepended. The program can read files structured in FREE format and/or user specified formats. For Standard MicroMODEL Input, regardless of the file's format (free/fixed), the file must contain the following information in the order described below.

Existing ASCII Drill Hole Data File Contents:

All data entries described above are read as REAL variables in MicroMODEL, except the drill hole name and end of hole marker, which are CHARACTER, and the number of survey records, which is an INTEGER.

The DRILL HOLE NAME can be any combination of 12 characters including spaces. It is strongly suggested that either the underbar character, or a dash, be used in lieu of embedded spaces in the drillhole name. If the user plans to use drillhole class limits, then drillhole names cannot contain embedded spaces. If FREE format is used, the drill hole name must be on a separate line, before the rest of the header information, with the first character of the name placed in Column 1. If the user specifies the header format, the program reads the drill hole name into a CHARACTER variable with a FORTRAN format of (A12).

The drill hole collar NORTHING, EASTING, and ELEVATION must be in the same units and relative to the same global coordinate system specified in the Project Information File.

The BEARING is the azimuth measured clockwise (0.00 to 359.99 degrees) from Global North to the plan view projection of the drill hole.

The PLUNGE is the vertical angle in degrees from horizontal to the drill hole. Downward dipping holes have positive plunge. Vertical (down) holes have +90.0 degree plunge. The valid range of plunges is from -90.0 (vertical upward) to +90.0 (vertical downward).

Each drill hole interval is specified by a FROM and a TO. The FROM is the linear distance downhole from the collar to the start of the drill hole interval. The FROM should be greater than or equal to the end of the previous interval (previous TO).

The TO is the linear distance downhole from the collar to the end of the drill hole interval. The TO should be greater than or equal to the start of the interval (previous FROM).

If the FROM of the current interval exceeds that of the previous TO of the current hole, a warning is issued by the program.

It is not absolutely necessary to have continuous sampling (intervals) down the hole, but the user is urged to fill in the gaps with all unsampled values. All unspecified intervals are processed as unsampled.

The ROCK CODE or SEAM CODE is a whole number classification that corresponds to the material in the current interval. Valid code values range from 1 to 9999. Code code 0 is always defined as air. For example, 3 might represent unaltered breccia, 4 would represent altered breccia, and 7 would represent intrusive rock. Code 9999 is used in portions of MicroMODEL to represent an undefined rock/seam type. Consequently, it is advised that the user avoid rock/seam code 9999 as a user-defined rock code. If rock code 0 is detected during the reading of the input file, MicroMODEL substitutes the undefined rock code, 9999.

For Seam Modeling, the SEAM Codes in each drillhole must increase in numeric value from top to bottom, or else an error message will be issued. Unidentified intervals should be coded with 9999 to avoid the error message. Seams do not have to be numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. For example, they can be numbered 10, 70, 130, 200. The main requirement is that the seam number must remain the same, or increase, with each interval.

The LABEL VALUE is the quality or assay to be assigned to each label for each interval. MicroMODEL expects an incoming value for each sample label at each interval. Assay values of nil or none must be exclusively specified with 0.0. Likewise, unsampled label values must be flagged with -999.99. If this system is not used, the drill holes can be read in a corrupt fashion, resulting in an unusable MicroMODEL drill hole database.

Mistakes detected while reading in a drill hole database should be corrected in the original ASCII file. Once the corrections are made to the ASCII file, it can then be read back into MicroMODEL. For this reason, it is recommended that the user divide large databases into smaller files and read the data into MicroMODEL in stages. This makes detection and correction of errors less cumbersome.

The user is asked several questions at the start of the Read in an Existing Drill Hole Database program to ensure that a previously existing drill hole database in MicroMODEL is not lost. Starting a NEW database causes the drill holes from the ASCII input data file to overwrite any existing drill holes in the MicroMODEL database (all previously existing MicroMODEL drill holes are lost). APPENDING the database causes the incoming drill holes to be appended to the previously existing MicroMODEL database (all previously existing drill holes remain intact).

RANGE CHECKS enable the user to specify minimum and maximum values for all input, including collar information and all label data. If the user enables the bounds checks, and an incoming data value is outside the specified bounds, the program writes a warning on the printed output produced by the program. The bounds checks are usually used to detect order of magnitude typing errors in the input ASCII data file.

The HEADER FORMAT can be either user specified or FREE depending on the structure of the ASCII drill hole input file. The order for the header information must be:

  1. Drill hole name
  2. Northing
  3. Easting
  4. Elevation
  5. Bearing
  6. Plunge
  7. Number of downhole surveys

Typical header records are shown below:

Specified Header Format:

	(12A1,3F8.1,F6.1,F5.1,I2)


             A12   F7.1   F7.1  F6.1  F6.1 F5.1I2
    123456789012123456712345671234561234561234512

    ABC-DDH-41A 10381.5 9080.66875.4 286.0 46.5 3
    ABC-RH-132   9924.510132.07205.6   0.0 90.0 0

Header Format:

	FREE
	(Hole name must then be a separate record)


    ABC-DDH-41A
    10381.5 9080.6 6875.4 286.0 46.5 3
    ABC-RH-132
    9924.5 10132.0 7205.6 0.0 90.0 0

The SURVEY CARD FORMAT can be either user specified or FREE depending upon the structure of the ASCII drill hole data input file.

For holes that do not have survey information (as in ABC-RH-132 above) the header record must have zero (0) for the number of surveys, and MicroMODEL expects the line following the header information to contain drill hole interval data.

Each survey card record must contain in order:

  1. Downhole distance to the survey point.
  2. Bearing at the survey point.
  3. Plunge at the survey point.

The order of the surveys must be sequential down the hole. Examples of typical survey data structures follow.

Specified Downhole Survey Format:

	(F7.2,F5.1,F4.1)


       F7.2 F5.1F4.1
    1234567123451234


      56.3 287.547.4
     106.3 288.848.4
     342.9 291.149.8

Downhole Survey Format:

	FREE


    56.3 287.5 47.4
    106.3 288.8 48.4
    342.9 291.1 49.8

The SAMPLE DATA INTERVAL FORMAT can be either user specified or FREE depending upon the structure of the ASCII drill hole data input file. Each interval record must contain in order:

  1. FROM
  2. TO
  3. Rock/Seam code
  4. First label value
  5. Second label value
  6. Third label value, etc., for each sample data label

For a typical 3 label project (labels: AuFire, Au_AA, and Ag_Fire) the interval data structure might look like this:

Specified Interval Format:

	(2F6.2,F2.0,3F8.3)

      F6.2  F6.2 F2.0 F8.3    F8.3    F8.3
    12345612345612123456781234567812345678
 
    303.4 316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    316.36 322.4 2   0.015   0.010   0.155
    322.4  328.  2   0.013   0.008   0.125
    328.   335.6 2   0.010   0.007   0.103
    335.6  368.6 3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99

Interval Format:

	FREE


    303.4  316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    316.36   322.4 2 0.015  0.010  0.155
    322.4  328.  2 0.013  0.008  0.125
    328. 335.6   2 0.010  0.007  0.103
    335.6 368.6  3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99

The End of Hole Marker is a record consisting of an alphanumeric string that cannot be read as a FROM value without causing a read error. A suggested value for this marker is:

	* EOH

Combining the Header, Survey, Interval, and End of Hole Marker information produces data files similar to the following examples:

Drill hole Data File with Specified Formats:

    ABC-DDH-41A 10381.5 9080.6 6875.4 286.0 46.5 3
    56.3 287.547.4
    106.3 288.848.4
    342.9 291.149.8
    21.5  35.6  1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    38.5  56.5  1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
       .        .       .       .       

       .        .       .       .

   303.4 316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
   316.36322.4  2   0.015   0.010   0.155
   322.4 328.   2   0.013   0.008   0.125
   328.  335.6  2   0.010   0.007   0.103
   335.6 368.6  3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
   * EOH
   ABC-RH-132   9924.5 10132.0 7205.6  0.0 90.0 0
     0.0  68.7  1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    93.6 103.4  2    6785     9.65    0.67

This pattern would repeat to the end of the last hole which must also be marked with an end of hole marker.

Drill hole File with FREE Format:

    ABC-DDH-41A
    10381.5 9080.6 6875.4 286.0 46.5 3
    56.3 287.5 47.4
    106.3 288.8 48.4
    342.9 291.1 49.8
    21.5 35.6 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    38.5 56.5 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
      .    .  .       .       .       .
    303.4 316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    316.36 322.4 2 0.015 0.010 0.155
    322.4 328. 2 0.013 0.008 0.125
    328. 335.6 2 0.010 0.007 0.103
    335.6 368.6 3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    * EOH
    ABC-RH-132
    9924.5 10132.0 7205.6 0.0 90.0 0
    0.0 68.7 1-999.99 -999.99 -999.99
    93.6 103.4 2 6785 9.65 0.67

This pattern would repeat to the end of the last hole which must also be marked with an end of hole marker.

1.5.2 Read Non-Standard MicroMODEL Input

A "standard" file is organized as described previously. MicroMODEL has the ability to read variations of the standard ASCII drill hole data file. These type of files are known as "Non-Standard" input files.

If a "non-standard" file format is selected, then the user has the opportunity to specify the ordering of the fields, with regard to rock/seam code and label names. The FROM and TO values must still be in the first two fields of the file. The remaining fields can be various label values and rock/seam codes. A "non-standard" input file allows the user to carry more fields in the ASCII file than are read as labels into MicroMODEL. This allows the user to carry more than one rock/seam code classification scheme, intermediate calculations on grade values, indicator values, or additional assaying information.

The system displays the numbers and names of the sample labels that have been created. The user must enter the total number of columns (fields that are in the unconventional ASCII drill hole input file. This includes the FROM and TO fields, which are forced to be Field #1 and Field #2. The user then selects the order of rock/seam code and sample labels. Note that there must be at least as many columns for input as there are sample labels.

Looking back at the typical 3 label project above (labels: AuFire, Au_AA, and AgFire), the interval data structure might look like this:

Specified Interval Format:

	(2F6.2,F2.0,3F8.3)


          F6.2 F6.2 F2.0  F8.3    F8.3    F8.3
        12345612345612123456781234567812345678

        303.4 316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99
        316.36322.4  2   0.015   0.010   0.155
        322.4 328.   2   0.013   0.008   0.125
        328.  335.6  2   0.010   0.007   0.103
        335.6 368.6  3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99


	Interval Format: FREE


        303.4 316.36 1 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99  316.36 
        322.4 2 0.015 0.010 0.155
        322.4 328. 2 0.013 0.008 0.125
        328. 335.6 2 0.010 0.007 0.103
        335.6 368.6 3 -999.99 -999.99 -999.99

The End of Hole Marker is a record consisting of an alphanumeric string that cannot be read as a FROM value without causing a read error. A suggested value is:

	* EOH

The user would state that there are 9 columns (fields) available from which to choose. The rock/seam code might be read from column 8, Label #1 from column 4, Label #2 from column 5, Label #3 from column 6, and Label #4 from column 7. The value in column 9 might be an indicator value, that won't be used at this time. Column 8 and column 3 contain rock/seam code information. However, column 8 might be a lithology coding, while column 3 might be an alteration code. This demonstrates the flexibility that is useful for carrying additional information, without cluttering the internal MicroMODEL sample drill hole database.

The answer set name for this program is also used as a RUNTIME TITLE (maximum length of 64 characters), which appears on the header page of the drill hole read print file. The print file echoes any bounds checks that entered, the fields from which each item is read, the format used for headers, surveys, and interval data, the name of each drill hole, and the number of samples read from the input file. It also contains a listing of all bounds errors, or FROM/TO errors that were encountered in the input file. Upon completion, the user has the opportunity to print this file, to hard copy or screen, for inspection.

1.5.3 Blasthole or Geochem Data

Blasthole or Geochem Data can be read into MicroMODEL by choosing this option. Each Blasthole sample or Geochem sample is treated as a separate drillhole with a single sample interval.

This data can either be read in with fixed format, or free format. If fixed format is used, then the data must contain entries in the following order: Drillhole (Sample) Name, Northing, Easting, Elevation, From, To, Rock/Seam, Label 1, Label 2, Label n. The fixed format style is very limiting in the way data can be prepared. Also, the user must specify a valid FORTRAN format to use when reading the data. A better choice is to use the free format input.

If free format input is used, then none of the drillhole names (sample names) can contain any embedded spaces. If they do, then the user must replace the spaces with a character such as a dash or underbar.

The file must contain, at a minimum, the Easting and Northing of the sample and a sample value (label). The file can also contain Drillhole Name (Sample Name), Elevation, Sample Length, Rock/Seam Code, Azimuth, Dip, Ending Easting, Ending Northing, and Ending Elevation. Each line of the input file contains a separate sample. The file can contain a header record, and the record will be ignored when reading the data file.

Default values for Rock/Seam Code, Sample Length, and Elevation are entered at the top of the column specification screen.

First Example of FREE format Input:

  DRILLHOLE   NORTH   EAST        ELEV   ENDNORTH   ENDEAST   ENDELEV  ROCK    AU
  BH01       5143.00   4667.00   3400.00   5143.0   4677.0     3390.     1    .022
  BH02       5243.00   4677.00   3405.00   5243.0   4677.0     3395.     2    .032
  BH03       5343.00   4687.00   3405.00   5353.0   4687.0     3395.     2    .042
  BH04       5443.00   4697.00   3410.00   5443.0   4697.0     3400.     2    .052
  BH05       5543.00   4707.00   3410.00   5543.0   4707.0     3400.     3    .062
  BH06       5643.00   4717.00   3415.00   5643.0   4717.0     3405.     3    .072
  BH07       5743.00   4727.00   3415.00   5743.0   4727.0     3405.     1    .082

For this file, the user would specify that nine columns of information will be
read.  The fields chosen should be:

    1 - DHNAME
    2 - NORTH
    3 - EAST
    4 - DLEV
    5 - NORTH_END
    6 - EAST_END
    7 - ELEV_END
    8 - ROCK
    9 - Au

Note: For this example, the interval length, azimuth, and dip would all be
automatically calculated from the starting and ending X-Y-Z coordinates.

Second Example of FREE format Input:

  DRILLHOLE   NORTH   EAST      AU
  BH01       5143.00   4667.00  .022
  BH02       5243.00   4677.00  .032
  BH03       5343.00   4687.00  .042
  BH04       5443.00   4697.00  .052
  BH05       5543.00   4707.00  .062
  BH06       5643.00   4717.00  .072
  BH07       5743.00   4727.00  .082

For this file, the user would specify that four columns of information will be
read from the file.  The fields chosen should be:

    1 - DHNAME
    2 - NORTH
    3 - EAST
    9 - Au

Note: For this example, since no azimuth or dip is entered, the program
assumes the "holes" are vertical (Azimuth=0.0 degrees, Dip=90.0 degrees).
The rock/seam code would come from the default value entered.  The interval
length would come from the default value entered.  The elevation would come
from the default value entered.

For Geochem data, it is suggested that a default interval length of 1.0 units
be used.  This way, the Grade-Thickness Program can be used to create contour
plots of the assay values.  This is because all interval lengths are 1 foot
(or meter), and, consequently, the Grade-Thickness values generated are the
same as grade.

1.6 Print Drill Hole Database

The purpose of the Print Drill Hole Database program is to produce an output of all or parts of the drill hole database.

The ANSWER SET NAME also appears with the project title on the output. It should contain information that is specific to this run, such as date, operator, important input parameters, etc.

This program can produce two types of output. The first type, REPORT format, produces a listing of the drill holes in a form which is generally used as a working printout of the drill hole database. The second type, FREE Format, produces an ASCII file that contains only raw drill hole data which can be used as a back-up of the drill hole database or as a data file to be edited or used outside of MicroMODEL. Table 1-1 shows a portion of an example drill hole database, printed as REPORT format and FREE Format output.

The FREE Format output option produces an ASCII file, containing drill hole data only, that can be read back into MicroMODEL directly in FREE format. This output file is called SAMPLE.PRN. It is strongly suggested that this output file be renamed with a unique file name (e.g. DHDATA.MMI) to avoid overwriting the output file if this option is chosen again at a later date.

The FREE FORMAT ASCII output file can be read back into MicroMODEL directly, using the Read in an Existing Database program with FREE formats (See Section 1.5). This feature simplifies complex edits that need to be made to the drill hole database, as the data can be written from, and read back into MicroMODEL conveniently. The Print Drill Hole Database program can also be used to back-up the MicroMODEL drill hole data to diskettes or any other storage facility, including another computer. This is accomplished by writing the entire drill hole database to a FREE FORMAT ASCII file. Once MicroMODEL has created the ASCII file, the user can, for instance, exit MicroMODEL and copy the file to diskettes.

Selecting the REPORT format output option produces a report style listing structured as an easy to read table, complete with headings and interval elevations. With the REPORT option, the user can format the output for a sequential range of drill holes, and specify the number of decimal places and column order for each label required to be printed.

MicroMODEL offers the option to limit the data printed to the formatted output file by minimum and maximum values in any or all of the labels, and by rock/seam type. Respond <Yes> to the Range limits prompt to enable range limits.

If minimum and maximum value limitation is used, the user must also choose to print the sample intervals if all minimum, maximum, and rock/seam constraints are met (option 1), or if at least one of these constraints are met (option 2). Option 1 is the most restrictive, while option 2 is the most relaxed.

MicroMODEL also prompts the user if rock/seam code limits should be used. The user can elect to print all rock/seam codes, or print selected rock/seam codes. If selected codes are to be printed, then the user must enter how many codes, and which codes to print in a later input screen.

The program allows the user to calculate and print statistics for each hole, or to suppress the calculation of statistics. The choices are:

  1. No printing
  2. Print to Screen only
  3. Print to Output File only
  4. Print to Screen and to Output File

Selecting the first option suppresses the calculation of statistics for each drill hole, while options 2, 3, and 4 calculate the statistics, and print the results to the screen, to the output file, or to both.

The user specifies a sequential range of drill holes to be printed with the STARTING and ENDING DRILL HOLE. The Pulldown menus show both the record number and the name. Record numbers correspond to the order in which drill holes were captured by MicroMODEL. To print the entire database, pick the top (first) choice in the pulldown dialog as the STARTING DRILL HOLE, and the bottom (last) choice in the pulldown menu as the ENDING DRILL HOLE.

Up to nine (9) COLUMNS of assay data may be displayed on the formatted output. This is specified with the NUMBER OF LABELS TO PRINT. For each column, the user must specify the LABEL NUMBER and NUMBER of DECIMAL PLACES to print. It is possible to display a label more than once.

If the user elects to use minimum and maximum limiting values, then for each item, the user must choose to use no limits (none), or a value for each limit. If a value is selected, then the user must enter the actual value in an edit field.

1.7 Database Editing (Menu)

1.7.1 Introduction

The Database Editing Menu allows the user to list drillhole names, and add or delete sample labels. In previous versions of MicroMODEL, this menu allowed the user to edit and manipulate sample drill hole data including header, survey, and assay records; delete entire drill holes, and compact the database.. In Version 7.0, this menu only allows listing the entered drill hole names, adding or deleting sample labels, and manipulating sample labels. Some of the prior features may or may not be reinstated in future versions of MicroMODEL. These prior features that do not currently exist {ELIMINATED} are noted below. The Database Editing Choices are as follows:

  1. Return To Submenu
  2. Command Shell
  3. List Drill Hole Names/Records
  4. Alter Existing Records (Header, Survey, ...)
  5. Delete a Drill Hole
  6. Delete a Survey Record
  7. Add Labels
  8. Delete Labels
  9. Manipulate Existing Labels

1.7.2 Command Shell

This menu choice enables the user to invoke system commands and run external programs without exiting MicroMODEL. Refer to Section 1.2.

1.7.3 List Drill Hole Names/Records

This option allows the user to create two different printouts of drill hole header information. One listing contains the drill hole record names with their associated drill hole record numbers. The other listing contains the drill hole names, record numbers, northings, eastings, elevations, dip directions, dip angles, and drill hole total depths.

The ABBREVIATED LISTING contains just the record numbers and the drill hole names in four columns. The DETAILED LISTING contains all the drill hole header information, one hole to a line.

The RUNTIME TITLE is a title that appears with the project title on the output. The runtime title should contain information that is specific to this run, such as date, operator, important input parameters, etc. This input serves no purpose other than to identify each run.

1.7.4 Alter Existing Records (Header, Survey, or Interval)

This option allows the user to alter existing records in the MicroMODEL drillhole database. The user can update collar coordinates, survey information, and interval information. NOTE THAT IT IS HIGHLY RECOMMENDED THAT ALL DATABASE CHANGES BE DONE WITH THE SOURCE DATA (raw text files) rather than via this program. Making changes at the source insures a better audit trail for the project. Changes made with this program are not trackable, and the user is urged to keep detailed records of any changes that are made.

1.7.5 Delete a Drill Hole

This option allows the user to remove a drillhole from the drillhole database.

1.7.6 Delete Survey Records

This option allows the user to remove a survey record from the drillhole database.

1.7.7 Add Labels

This option allows the user to add new sample data labels to the sample drill hole database. This option can be used to create empty label space for sample label manipulations (Section 1.7.9).

The user should enter the number of new labels to add, and then enter the label name and optional additional description for each label added.

After entering the names for each of the new sample data labels, the user is warned that the data base will now be updated. After entering a RETURN, the user should not break out of the program until the MicroMODEL menu reappears. Doing so corrupts the database.

1.7.8 Delete Labels

This option allows the user to completely remove any sample data label from the sample drill hole database. Labels do not have to be removed in any specific order. The label numbers are automatically adjusted so that the labels remain in numerical sequence. E.g., if there are four labels in the sample drill hole database, and the user wishes to delete Label #2; once Label #2 is deleted, (leaving Label #1, Label #3, and Label #4) the remaining labels are renumbered as Label #1, Label #2, and Label #3.

The user is prompted for the sample data label number that is to be deleted.

1.7.9 Manipulate Existing Labels

This option allows the user to perform several different types of mathematical and logical operations on any label and a constant, or on any two labels. The results of the operations can be written into any existing sample data label. A label can either be an actual label, or the rock/seam code value. This option is especially useful for the creation of synthesized data, such as data that has been limited to a given minimum or maximum value. See section 1.14 for details.

1.8 Plot Drill Hole Surface Locations

This option allows the user to produce a plan view map (plot) of the drill hole collar locations. The map can be displayed at any user specified scale within the size limitations of the user's plotter. The user can design the plot to meet his specific needs, using the inputs described below.

The 64-character ANSWER SET NAME is simply used to identify this set of answers.

The user can specify to plot the plan view projection or TRACE of the drill hole, if required. The traces show any "bending" in holes that have downhole surveys. However, "bending" due to changes in plunge only, are not discernible. Select the "Check Here to Display Drillhole Traces" check box to plot traces, otherwise, leave it unselected.

The LOCAL GRID can be plotted over the plot according to three LOCAL GRID PLOTTING OPTIONS.

  1. Do NOT plot a local grid
  2. Plot local tic marks
  3. Plot a full local grid

If the LOCAL GRID is to be plotted, the user must specify a PEN COLOR for the GRID NUMBERS and either a LOCAL GRID LINE PEN COLOR or a TIC MARK PEN COLOR and PERIMETER LINE PEN COLOR. The character size for the grid numbers is a fraction of the cell dimension, and the character size of the Northings and Eastings is the same as for the drill hole identification information. For further explanation on LOCAL GRID OPTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The GLOBAL GRID can be displayed on the finished plot. Select the appropriate check box. Otherwise, leave the box unselected.

If the GLOBAL GRID is to be plotted, the user must specify a GLOBAL GRID INTERVAL in the project units (Feet or Meters) and a PEN COLOR for the GLOBAL GRID LINES. The character size is the same as specified earlier. For explanation on GLOBAL GRID OPTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

Row and Column Clipping allows the user to plot a partial section (window) of the model area. The user defines this window with STARTING and ENDING ROWS and COLUMNS as prompted by MicroMODEL. For further explanation on ROW and COLUMN CLIPPING, see chapter 11, Plotting.

Each drill hole within the user specified plot area is marked with a "+" symbol at its collar location. Up to 9 lines of information can be plotted above the drill hole location symbol. The user specifies the NUMBER OF ITEMS TO PLOT. The types of information, LINE OPTIONS, that can be plotted in any user specified order are:

  1. Drill Hole Name
  2. Drill Hole Record Number
  3. Number of Samples in the Drill Hole
  4. Collar Northing
  5. Collar Easting
  6. Collar Elevation
  7. Collar Bearing
  8. Collar Plunge
  9. Drill Hole Depth

The line options are plotted from the drill hole marker up, so the first line is plotted immediately above the marker, the second line plotted above the first line and so on.

Since some of the line option information requires decimal point display, the user can structure the output format by specifying the NUMBER OF CHARACTERS BEHIND THE DECIMAL. If the user does not want to have any characters behind the decimal point and also does not wish to display the decimal point, a -1 should be entered.

   Response to    Actual     Actual
   number of      Number     Number
   Characters     on Input   on Output

     -1           123.4543   123
      0           123.4543   123.
      1           123.4543   123.5
      2           123.4543   123.45

With each LINE OPTION the user must specify a PEN COLOR to use when plotting that line of information.

The CHARACTER SIZE is specified by the user as a fraction of the row dimension. A character size of 0.25 results in plotted characters that have a height which occupies one quarter of the row dimension. See Volume I, Section 6.3.8 for more information on selecting character sizes. For further explanation on CHARACTER SIZE, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The user selects a PEN COLOR for the drill hole location mark, the TRACE LINE, GLOBAL GRID LINES, LOCAL GRID INTERNAL LINES, LOCAL GRID PERIMETER LINES, LOCAL GRID NUMBERS, and LOCAL GRID TIC MARKS.

The TITLE BLOCK parameters are set after all program parameters have been set. For a complete discussion of the TITLE BLOCK QUESTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The Surface Location Plotting program produces a scaled plot that can be output at any user specified map scale (see Volume I, Section 6.3.7). The SCALE OF THE PLOT determines the plot size in feet/inch or meters/meter. For further explanation on SCALE OF PLOTS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

1.9 Plot Drill Hole Bench Locations

This option allows the user to produce a plan view map of drill hole pierce point locations at the midpoint elevation for a specified bench. The map can be plotted at any user specified scale.

NOTE: For seam modeling, this program allows the user to display drill hole pierce point locations for each seam. Instead of selecting the bench to display, the user selects the seam.

The 64-character ANSWER SET NAME is simply used to identify this set of answers.

The LOCAL GRID can be displayed according to three LOCAL GRID PLOTTING OPTIONS. See section 1.8 and chapter 11, Plotting, for more information.

The GLOBAL GRID can be displayed on the finished plot. Select the check box "Plot Global Grid Every..." to plot the GLOBAL GRID. Otherwise, leave the box unselected.

If the GLOBAL GRID is to be plotted, the user must specify a GLOBAL GRID INTERVAL in the project units (Feet or Meters) and a PEN COLOR for the GLOBAL GRID LINES. The character size is the same as specified earlier. For further explanation on GLOBAL GRID OPTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

Row and Column Clipping allows the user to plot a partial section (window) of the model area. The user defines this window with STARTING and ENDING ROWS and COLUMNS as prompted by MicroMODEL. For further explanation on ROW and COLUMN CLIPPING, see chapter 11, Plotting.

STARTING and ENDING LEVEL NUMBERS allow the user to create a mid-bench pierce point map for multiple sequential benches in the system. If only one pierce point map is desired, then the starting and stopping bench numbers are the same.

Normally, this program only displays intervals that actually straddle the bench midpoint. By checking the "Plot All Intervals Within Bench" check box, the user can display all intervals with midpoints that fall within the limits of the bench.

Each drill hole pierce point within the specified plot area is marked with a "+" symbol at its corresponding bench location. Up to 9 lines of information can be plotted above the drill hole location symbol. The user specifies the NUMBER OF ITEMS TO PLOT. The types of information, LINE OPTIONS, that can be plotted in any user specified order are:

  1. Drill Hole Name
  2. Drill Hole Record Number
  3. Rock/Seam Code
  4. Pierce Point Northing
  5. Pierce Point Easting
  6. Any Pierce Point Label Value

The LINE OPTIONS are plotted from the pierce point marker up, so the first line is plotted immediately above the marker, the second line plotted above the first line and so on.

With each LINE OPTION the user must specify a PEN COLOR to be associated with that option.

OPTION 6 (plot label values) also allows the use of MULTIPLE COLORS. If selected, the user specifies CUTOFF RANGES and associated PEN COLORS in subsequent input screens.

Since some of the line option information requires decimal point display, the user can structure the output format by specifying the NUMBER OF CHARACTERS BEHIND THE DECIMAL. If the user does not want to have any characters behind the decimal point and also does not wish to display the decimal point, a -1 should be entered. See section 1.8.

The CHARACTER SIZE is specified by the user as a fraction of the row dimension. A character size of 0.33 results in plotted characters that have a height which occupies one third of the row dimension. See Volume I, Section 6.3.8 for more information on selecting character sizes. For further explanation on CHARACTER SIZE, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The user must select a PEN COLOR for the DRILL HOLE LOCATION MARK, GLOBAL GRID LINES, LOCAL GRID INTERNAL LINES, LOCAL GRID PERIMETER LINES, LOCAL GRID NUMBERS, AND LOCAL GRID TIC MARKS.

The TITLE BLOCK parameters are entered after all other program parameters have been set. For a complete discussion of the TITLE BLOCK QUESTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The Mid-Bench Pierce Point Plotting program places the bench number and elevation in the upper left-hand corner of the pierce point plot.

The Mid-Bench Pierce Point Plotting program produces a scaled plot that can be output at any user specified map scale (see Volume I, Section 6.3.7). The SCALE OF THE PLOT determines the plot size in feet/inch or meters/meter. For further explanation on SCALE OF PLOTS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

1.10 Plot Drill Hole Sections

This program produces a cross section plot of drill holes and the topographic projection onto any user specified vertical plane. Cross sections can be plotted at any scale, with a user specified vertical exaggeration. Many options are available to customize the appearance of the cross sections as needed.

Drill hole interval data, LABEL VALUES or ROCK/SEAM CODES, can be plotted on the left and/or right side of each drill hole in cross section for both SAMPLE and/or COMPOSITE data.

The section line of the cross section is defined by the NORTHING and EASTING of the LEFT-HAND and RIGHT-HAND points as the cross section is viewed. The TOLERANCE of the section determines the plan view distance on each side of the section line within which drill holes and portions of drill holes are included in the cross section. Any part of a drill hole that enters the "box" (volume) defined by the section line and the tolerance is included in the section plot.

The user defines the TOP and BOTTOM ELEVATION of the cross section. VERTICAL EXAGGERATION (greater than 1.0) or reduction (less than 1.0) of the cross section can be chosen if needed. A vertical exaggeration of 1 means the cross section scale is equal to the plan view scale. It should be noted that any vertical exaggeration (or reduction) changes the character size accordingly.

The user may select the check box "Plot DH names at bottom of hole" to label drillholes at the bottom. This option is useful in identifying individual drillholes, especially with multiple holes drilled from the same general collar location.

For both the RIGHT and LEFT side of the drillhole, the user may elect to plot a LABEL VALUE, a ROCK/SEAM CODE, or plot NOTHING. The user must elect to plot either SAMPLE intervals, or COMPOSITE intervals. If a LABEL VALUE is chosen, then the appropriate LABEL is chosen with the "< >Label" command button.

LABEL VALUES and ROCK/SEAM CODES can be displayed NUMERICALLY, as DOWNHOLE BAR HISTOGRAMS, or as constant width COLOR BARS.

LABEL VALUES and ROCK/SEAM CODES can be displayed using multiple colors and cutoffs or with a single pen color. If HISTOGRAMS or COLOR BARS are selected, then the user may elect to display these as MULTIPLE Color Fill.

The user is required to specify the NUMBER OF DIGITS BEHIND THE DECIMAL and CHARACTER SIZE for numerically displayed label values. See section 1.8 and Chapter 11, Plotting, for an explanation of character size selection.

For data to be displayed in HISTOGRAM format, the user must specify the SCALE FACTOR for the histogram (left and/or right side of drill hole). This scale factor is an adjustment to the one to one correlation between the project units (feet or meters) and label value (rock/seam code), units (GOLD, %, oz/ton), etc. The histogram is scaled on the plot in the project units (feet or meters) according to:

    Factor = Lmax/Vmax

    Where: Lmax = Longest Allowable Histogram Length
           Vmax = Largest Possible Label Value

For example, a project has drill holes on 50 meter centers. A cross section plot is needed with downhole histograms of GOLD values on the left side and SILVER values on the right side of the drill hole. For clarity, it is determined the maximum histogram should not extend beyond half the distance to the next hole, so 20 meters is chosen as the Longest Allowable Histogram Length. The largest possible GOLD value is determined (from the Basic Statistics program, Section 1.11) to be .07855. The maximum GOLD Histogram Scale Factor would be: (20 meters / .07855 GOLD oz/ton) = 255. Likewise, with a maximum SILVER value of 12.5, the maximum SILVER Histogram Scale Factor would be: (20 meters / 12.5 SILVER oz/ton) = 1.6. Histograms of Rock/Seam Codes are determined in the same manner. Given a deposit with rock/seam codes 3, 4, and 7 and a drill hole spacing of 50 meters, the Rock Code Histogram Scale Factor could be: (20 meters / 7 {max rock code}) = 2.86.

Normally, Histogram Scale Factors are selected such that histogram values can be scaled from cross section plots using a standard engineering scale. To accomplish this, the user must take into account the Map Scale of the final plot in conjunction with the Histogram Scale Factor as described in the previous paragraph. Rounding the scale factor downwards from the maximum value possible to a standard scale (e.g. 50, 100, 200, etc.) yields the desired result. In the above example, selecting a GOLD Histogram Scale Factor of 200 for a plot scale of 1"=100 feet means that each inch of distance on the map is equivalent to one-half ounce. The 50 scale portion of a standard engineering scale could then be used to read out ounces directly from measuring the histogram.

The user must specify a PEN COLOR for the NORTHING and EASTING NUMBERS, and the TRACE LINE.

If the data is to be displayed as COLOR BARS, then the HISTOGRAM SCALE FACTOR is used as the width in FEET or METERS of the COLOR BARS. For example, to plot COLOR BARS that are 5 feet wide, then enter 5 as the HISTOGRAM SCALE FACTOR.

If either MULTIPLE COLOR FILL, or MULTIPLE PEN COLORS were chosen for a LABEL, then the user must select the NUMBER OF CUTOFFS ranges, the CUTOFF VALUE for each range, and the PEN COLOR.

Above the collar of each drill hole in the cross-sectional view, the user may instruct the program to plot any combination of the following LINE OPTIONS:

  1. Drill Hole Name
  2. Collar Easting
  3. Collar Northing
  4. Collar Elevation
  5. Collar Bearing
  6. Collar Plunge
  7. Drill Hole Length

The user must specify a PEN COLOR for that line of information and the NUMBER OF CHARACTERS BEHIND THE DECIMAL for line options 2 through 7. The user must also enter the CHARACTER SIZE OF THE COLLAR INFORMATION (Volume I, Section 6.3.8).

As Miscellaneous Plot Options, the user can choose from the several items.

PLAN VIEW MAP of the cross section can be displayed. If selected, A plan view of the cross section tolerance is plotted below the cross section. The user specifies whether GLOBAL GRID LINES are to be plotted, the PEN COLOR and at what GLOBAL GRID INTERVAL for the plan view box.

ELEVATION GRID LINES can be plotted across the cross section if desired at a user specified ELEVATION GRID INTERVAL and PEN COLOR.

The user can elect to display surface TOPOGRAPHY in profile. However, if a surface model has not yet been created (Volume II, Section 2), no topography trace appears on the plot. The PEN COLOR for the Topography Line controls the color of this item.

By specifying a non-zero (positive) value for the PIERCE POINT CIRCLE PLOT RADIUS, the user can show the location where a drillhole actually pierces the drillhole section. A circle will be drawn, centered at this point, at the radius specified. The radius is in either FEET or METERS.

Finally, the user must specify PEN COLORS for Section and Plan view Boxes, Cross Section Title, Plan View Title and Section Line Title, Northing and Easting Numbers, Drill Hole Trace Lines, and Pierce Point Circles..

The TITLE BLOCK parameters are set after all program parameters have been set. For a complete discussion of the TITLE BLOCK QUESTIONS, see chapter 11, Plotting.

The Cross Section program produces a scaled plot that can be output at any user specified map scale (see Volume I, Section 6.3.7).

1.11 Sample Frequency Analysis and Basic Statistics

This option allows the user to perform basic statistics on the current sample data label in the Sample Drill Hole database. The printed output produced by this program includes population information, mean and variance analysis, cumulative frequency analysis, and a histogram printout. If the user elects to calculate statistics on specific rock/seam codes, then the results are broken out by rock/seam type and by total.

The ANSWER SET NAME doubles as the RUNTIME TITLE. The runtime title should contain information that is specific to this run, such as date, operator, important input parameters, etc. The runtime title appears on each page of printout.

The user must elect to calculate either NORMAL or LOG TRANSFORMED (Logarithmic) Statistics. Choosing Log Transformed instructs the program to run statistics on data after logs (base e) are taken. If logs are chosen, data values of 0.0 (undefined by the log function) are ignored by the statistics program and do not enter into any of the calculations.

If Log Transformed is selected, the user can specify a THIRD PARAMETER, and all data values are adjusted by this quantity. If the THIRD PARAMETER is not required, enter the default response of 0.0.

The user can bound the statistical population by specifying the LOWEST and HIGHEST VALUES. Only data contained in this user specified range is included in the statistical calculations. The printout displays the lowest and highest values along with the number of data points inside and outside of the specified range. This feature is useful for specifying ranges that prevent outlying data points from making the results unusable.

If the user needs statistics run on the entire range of input data, he can select the COMPUTER SEARCH choice button. This instructs the program to search for the lowest and highest data values in the entire population. Unsampled values (-999.99) are not included in this search.

Choosing to ENTER INTERVAL RANGES also enables the user to specify the UPPER BOUND for each interval. This feature enables the user to analyze his data with unequal class intervals set at specific boundaries. This allows closer examination of clustered data by specifying narrow interval ranges for the clustered data. This feature is not available in combination with COMPUTER SEARCH.

If the user chooses to COMPUTER SEARCH, the program divides the specified population range into N intervals of equal size, where N is the specified NUMBER OF CLASS INTERVALS.

The user may elect to control the input sample population by specifying rock/seam codes. If the user elects to calculate statistics on specified rock/seam codes, then the program prompts the user for the number of rock/seam types to be used (NUMBER OF ROCK TYPES) followed by a list of rock codes to use. For example, if statistics are desired on rock types 2, 6, and 7 as a combined population, then the number of rock types is 3 and the rock codes entered are 2 (#1), 6 (#2), and 7 (#3).

The user may elect to weight the statistics by some parameter, such as length, by checking the "Report Weighting by" check box. Select the command button to change the weighting parameter. Normally, weighting is by Length (length of the sample interval).

1.12 Sample Cumulative Frequency Analysis

This option allows the user to produce an unscaled cumulative frequency curve plot of the sample drill hole data. The user can input a variety of controls to isolate certain data populations and use logarithmic transformations if needed. This program always uses the current sample data label for the sample drill hole database as the input values.

The ANSWER SET NAME simply identifies this set of input parameters.

The user must elect to calculate either Normal or Log Transformed (LOGARITHMIC) Statistics. Choosing LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORMATIONS instructs the program to produce the cumulative frequency plot of the decimal logarithms of the input values. With logarithmic transformations, data values of 0.0 are ignored by the cumulative frequency program calculations.

If Log Transformed is selected, the user can specify a THIRD PARAMETER, and all data values are adjusted by this quantity. If the THIRD PARAMETER is not required, enter the default response of 0.0.

The user can bound the statistical population by specifying the LOWEST and HIGHEST VALUES. Only data contained in this user specified range is included in the statistical calculations. The lowest and highest values are also used to define the plot scaling along the vertical axis. This feature is useful for specifying ranges that prevent outlying data points from making the plot difficult to read.

If the user needs statistics run on the entire range of input data, he can select the COMPUTER SEARCH choice button. This instructs the program to search for the lowest and highest data values in the entire population. Unsampled values (-999.99) are not included in this search.

Choosing to ENTER INTERVAL RANGES also enables the user to specify the UPPER BOUND for each interval. This feature enables the user to analyze his data with unequal class intervals set at specific boundaries. This allows closer examination of clustered data by specifying narrow interval ranges for the clustered data. This feature is not available in combination with COMPUTER SEARCH.

If the user chooses to COMPUTER SEARCH, the program divides the specified population range into N intervals of equal size, where N is the specified NUMBER OF CLASS INTERVALS. If the user desires to plot every data point, then the NUMBER OF CLASS INTERVALS should be entered as 0 (zero). The user is warned that, for large data sets, this can create a sizeable plot file.

If desired, the user may calculate a weighted cumulative frequency curve, based on either interval length, or on some other label (density, for example).

To activate this option, the user should check the check box next to the "Use Weighting By:" command button. Change weighting label by selecting the "Use Weighting By:" command button.

The user may elect to control the input sample population by specifying rock/seam codes. If the user elects to calculate statistics on specified rock/seam codes, then the program prompts the user for the number of rock/seam types to be used (NUMBER OF ROCK TYPES) followed by a list of rock codes to use. For example, if statistics are desired on rock types 2, 6, and 7 as a combined population, then the number of rock types is 3 and the rock codes entered are 2 (#1), 6 (#2), and 7 (#3).

The user must enter the PEN COLOR for the DATA MARK. The user must enter a PEN COLOR for the PLOT BOX, SCALE TIC MARKS, SCALE LABELS and SCALE NUMBERS.

A Grid Style must be specified. A FULL GRID results in horizontal and vertical lines being plotted across the cumulative frequency plot to mark the axis divisions. A full grid often makes extracting information from the plot easier. TIC MARKS are divisions along the edge of the plot only, without a grid connecting the axis divisions. The tic mark option produces a less cluttered plot.

The user must also specify a Drawing Title, a Project Title and a PEN COLOR for the titles.

The Cumulative Frequency program produces an unscaled plot (see Volume I, Section 6.3.9).

1.13 Sample Correlation Analysis

This option allows the user to produce a correlation analysis (linear regression) plot between any two labels in the sample drill hole database. Several user specified constraints on the input populations are available.

The ANSWER SET NAME identifies these input parameters, and also is used as the RUNTIME title.

First the user selects a PRIMARY LABEL NUMBER (horizontal axis) and a SECONDARY LABEL NUMBER (vertical axis) using the appropriate command buttons. The remainder of the program inputs refer to both the primary and secondary axes.

If LOGARITHMIC TRANSFORMATIONS are requested by the user, a THIRD PARAMETER may be specified by the user, which is used to adjust the data by a specified quantity. The correlation analysis is performed on natural logarithms of the primary and/or secondary input data. The plot is generated using decimal logarithms, for simplicity. With logarithmic transformations, data values of 0.0 are ignored by the correlation calculations.

The primary (horizontal) and secondary (vertical) axes of the regression plot can be structured by the user. The NUMBER OF DIGITS BEHIND THE DECIMAL for increment labeling of the axes is specified for both axes. The user can also specify the axes lengths (in primary and secondary label units) by choosing to enter Range Limits. If this option is selected, the user must enter appropriate values for Minimum and Maximum Value. Data pairs outside of the specified range are not included in the correlated population. The user may choose to use No Range Limits, which allows the program to automatically search through the input data for the minimum and maximum values for both labels.

The user must specify a PEN COLOR for the DATA MARK, PLOT BOX, SCALE TIC MARKS, SCALE NUMBERS SCALE LABELS and the EXPLANATION BOX.

Next, the user specifies whether the input sample population should be controlled by rock/seam type. If Specifying ROCK CONSTRAINTS, the user must enter how many rock types should be used (NUMBER OF ROCK TYPES) followed by the actual ROCK CODES TO ACCEPT as population control. For example, if cumulative frequency analysis is required on rock types 2, 6, and 7 as a combined population, then the number of rock types is 3 and the rock codes to accept are 2 (#1), 6 (#2), and 7 (#3).

The Correlation Analysis program produces an unscaled plot (see Volume I, Section 6.3.9). A PLOT SCALE of "R" produces a standard report size, 8.5in x 11in (215mm x 280mm), plot. For screen previewing, a plot scale of "P" (for Preview) is recommended. A plot scale of "S" suppresses the plotter output and returns the user to the plotting menu.

1.14 Sample Manipulation

This program allows the user to write sample label data that has been artificially massaged into existing sample data labels in the sample drill hole database. This option is also available in the Database Editing Sub-Menu.

A wide range of manipulations is possible since the user provides a sequence of mathematical equations that are used to calculate the new values.

MicroMODEL Data Manipulation Built-In Operators:

  1. + Positive sign or arithmetic addition
  2. - Negative sign or arithmetical subtraction
  3. * Multiplication
  4. / Division
  5. % Remainder (modulus) obtained by dividing one numeric expression into another
  6. ^ Power
  7. < Less than
  8. > Greater than
  9. == Equal
  10. != Not Equal
  11. <> Not Equal
  12. <= Less than or equal
  13. >= Greater than or equal
  14. && Logical And
  15. || Logical or
  16. ! Logical negation
  17. AND Logical AND
  18. OR Logical OR
  19. NOT Logical Negation
  20. & Bitwise AND
  21. | Bitwise inclusive OR
  22. !& Bitwise exclusive OR
  23. ~ Bitwise negation
  24. : Separator in C-like condition expression
  25. ? Condition in a C-like condition expression

MicroMODEL Data Manipulation Built-In Functions:

  1. ABS(number) Returns the absolute value of a number
  2. EXP(number) Returns E (the base of natural logarithms) raised to a power
  3. FLOOR(number) Returns the greatest integer less than or equal to its numeric argument
  4. IIF(condition,expression1,expression2) If condition evaluates to TRUE, expression 1 is returned. If condition evaluates to FALSE, expression 2 is returned
  5. LN(number) Returns the natural logarithm of a number
  6. LOG(number,base) Returns the logarithm of number to a base
  7. LOG10(number) Returns the logarithm of number to a base of 10
  8. NEG(number) Negation
  9. POWER(number,power) Returns the number raised to a power
  10. SQRT(number) Returns the square root of a number
  11. SUM(number1,...,numberN) Returns the sum of numbers

In the first input screen, the user enters the name for this set of answers. Then, the variable name that will be used to represent a missing value (-999.99) is specified. It is recommended that the default response of "MSNG" be used, but any variable name can be used with the exception of "E", "PI", "TRUE", and "FALSE". These four names are reserved.

Next, the user must specify how many different input labels will be used in the formulas. This can be anything from one label to eight labels. For each label, the user specifies the actual label (e.g. AuOpt) from the sample interval database. The user also specifies the Variable Name that will represent this label in formulas. It is recommended that the user specify the label name as the variable name in order to reduce confusion. However, shorter names, such as "X" and "Y" can be used to reduce the length of the equations that are entered. Reserved names "E", "PI", "TRUE", and "FALSE" cannot be used.

The user may opt to apply a separate formula to each of the input labels, prior to using the variable in other equations. For example, assume an upper cap must be placed on an input label representing the ounces per ton of gold (Auopt). To cap gold opt at 0.1, the user would check the box labelled "Apply Formula Prior to Calc", and then enter the formula "IIF( Auopt > 0.1, 0.1, Auopt )" in the formula field. This formula says that if Auopt is greater than 0.1 then set it to 0.1, otherwise leave it as is.

For each input label, there is a check box "Do Manipulation Even if Missing". This check box MUST be checked if you want to run manipulations on input values that include a missing (-999.99) value for this particular label. If this box is left unchecked, then anytime a missing value is found, the output label will be set to missing. If the box is checked, the user must also enter a constant value that will be used in place of missing when doing the manipulation calculations. In many cases, this constant will be zero (0.0), but any real number can be entered here.

Note that the individual formulas that apply to each input variable are applied in the order that the label appears. If a formula applies to the first input label, then the RECALCULATED value for input label one will be used IN PLACE of the original value for label one in all subsequent formulas. The same goes for the optional intermediate variables. The first intermediate variable is calculated based on its equation. This calculated value is then available for use in the second intermediate variable formula as well as in the final formula.

The user may opt to perform up to two pre-calculations of intermediate variables that can then be used in the final equation. For example, it may be necessary to average the value of two input labels as part of the calculation scheme. Rather than try to average the values as part of one big equation, it is easier to define a new intermediate variable which represents the average of the two input labels. This intermediate variable can then be represented by its variable name in the final equation.

To use intermediate variables, specify either one or two as the number of intermediate variables. Then, enter the Variable Name that will be used to represent this value in the final equation. Finally, enter the formula to use in calculating the intermediate variable.

The user enters the final formula at the bottom of the first input screen. This formula is used to calculate the value that is stored in the output label. The logical IIF function can be used to control what happens if one or more input variables are missing etc.

On a second input screen, the user specifies the label into which the final calculated value will be stored. There is an option that allows the user to replace missing results with a constant value. The check box "Replace Missing Result with this Value" should be checked in order to do this. The constant value to use instead of missing is entered in the input field to the right of the check box.

The user may opt to test the maniuplation program formulas by running a test calculation using three sets of input values. The check box "Run in Test Mode Using the Three Data Sets Below" should be checked. Values for each of the input variables for the three sets of input are entered in the grid field below the check box. When the program runs in test mode, the results for the three sets of data are printed. In test mode, no manipulation is performed on actual data, only the three artifical data sets are processed. To do the "real" manipulation, the user must rerun the manipulation and uncheck the "Run in Test Mode" check box.

1.15 Clean-Up Directory

This option allows the user to delete all output files created in the Data Entry Module that are no longer needed in the MicroMODEL system. The files that will be deleted are listed when the program is invoked. The output files that are deleted can always be recreated by MicroMODEL at a later date as needed. Periodically running this program increases usable disk space.